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Dr. K.S. Krishnan Geomagnetic Research Laboratory (KSKGRL) Prayagraj (U.P.)

Dr. K.S. Krishnan Geomagnetic Research Laboratory (KSKGRL) Prayagraj, a regional center of IIG, was inaugurated on 27th March 2008. Unveiling of plaque at KSKGRL was done by the Chief Guest, Dr. T. Ramasamy, Secretary, Department of Science and Technology in presence of IIG's Governing Council Chairman and Members, DST Financial Advisor, RAC member and Institute’s Director. Director, IIG, emphasized the need for establishment of KSKGRL at Prayagraj for the establishment and development of wide range of experiments for multi-disciplinary studies related to Solid Earth and near-Earth Space Weather research. The activities at KSKGRL cover the field of Geomagnetic research, Upper Atmospheric studies, Palaeomagnetic and Magnetic-Petrology studies. These investigations are expected to provide vital information about the earth’s deep interior as well as the upper atmosphere and Solar terrestrial relations. KSKGRL is situated on the crest of equatorial ionization anomaly so observations carried out here provides important data base for the studies of upper atmosphere in low latitude region. The geographic co-ordinates of KSK GRL is 25.47o N, 81.90oE and is spread over and area of approx. 40 acres.

One of the main functions of KSKGRL is to carry our uninterrupted recording of Earth's magnetic field measurements. A digital fluxgate magnetometer is being operated at KSKGRL which records high resolution digital data of three components of Earth's magnetic field - the horizontal (H), vertical (Z) and the Declination (D). These observations are supplemented by regular observations of absolute field components carried out with the Declination Inclination Magnetometer (DIM) and the Proton Precession Magnetometer (PPM). The data collected are sent to IIG headquarter at Navi Mumbai to be used for the research application.

The scientific activities at KSKGRL, IIG is carried out in the following areas:

(A) Upper Atmospheric Studies:

  • Ionospheric research via Ionosonde

A Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI) state of the art, flexible, full-featured ionosonde ideal for both routine ionospheric monitoring and research is been continuously operated at the centre. It is a radar system for determining the vertical height at which the ionosphere reflects signals back to earth in frequency range of 2 – 20 MHz and is used to compute Ionospheric parameters such as foE, foEs, foEbs h’F and foF2. Also a Spaced receiver VHF scintillation experiment is run to generate a comprehensive database of ionospheric scintillation and processed indices of scintillations. To study the morphology of scintillation producing ionospheric irregularities over Prayagraj, to study the geomagnetic effects on the scintillation and to determine the zonal and random velocity of the irregularity diffraction patterns and space weather effect on it.

  • VLF Studies

For the Ionosphere/Magnetosphere studies using low-latitude ground based VLF/Whistler waves observations, a VLF receiver is being operated continuously at KSK GRL for monitoring of VLF waves having their origin in natural and artificial sources. This stations works in tandem with two other IIG's VLF stations at Nainital & Varanasi and under collaboration with AWESOME (Atmospheric Weather Educational System for Observation and Modeling of Effects) network of VLF stations spread all over the globe . The VLF receiver utilizes two crossed magnetic loop antennas oriented in North/South (N/S) and East/West (E/W) direction and signal conditioning electronics that provide a flat frequency response between ~ 300 Hz and 47 kHz. The obtained data is sampled at 100 kHz and has 10-microsecond absolute time resolution. The analysis of Extremely Low Frequency (ELF, 30-3000 Hz) and Very Low Frequency (VLF, 3-30 kHz) wave data is a powerful tool for remote sensing of processes in the ionosphere and magnetosphere, providing data complementary to other techniques in space weather studies. Continuous monitoring of these waves allow for the quantitative physical analysis of electromagnetic phenomena in the ionosphere and magnetosphere such as: Lightning discharges (radio atmospheric), Whistlers, VLF emissions, Lightning induced electron precipitation (LEP), Gamma-ray bursts, Transient Luminous Events (TLE's), solar flares and Earthquake precursor studies.

(B) Solid Earth Studies:

  • Palaeomagnetic Studies

Palaeomagnetic and rock magnetic group of KSK GRL (IIG) has been active in making significant research contributions in the areas of palaeomagnetism, rock magnetism and low filed anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) on the intrusive bodies of the Deccan Traps and Precambrian dykes intruding into the Dharwar, Bastar and Bundelkhand Cratons, defining the magma flow dynamics and their palaeomagnetic ages. The detailed investigations, covering the entire Deccan Volcanic Province, constrained the age as 65 Ma for the Deccan volcanism. The group has also defined the apparent polar wander path (APWP) of the Indian subcontinent for the period ranging from 2000 Ma to 2500 Ma. Through AMS investigations on the Precambrian dykes, magma flow directions have been determined to locate the magma chambers and to understand the dyking mechanism. NW-SE trending structural grain of the Hyderabad granitic pluton has been successfully identified by the AMS investigations. The group has also identified a unique signature of remagnetization on the sediments of Bhima Basin, southern India. Two different magmatic events at 120 Ma and 65 Ma were identified for the intrusive of the Gondwana Basin. The group is also active in rock magnetic and environmental magnetic studies on the Quaternary soils of Pune and Prayagraj regions to distinguish the pollution sources. The group has carried out environmental magnetic studies on the deep sea core sediments of Arabian Sea and Bay of Bengal to understand the provenance as well as palaeo climates. The group has also been active in magnetostratigraphic investigations to identify the oil potential zones of north-east India. Apart from the in-house projects, several research projects funded by DST and ONGC were successfully completed. At present three DST funded projects are on hand in collaboration with other research institutes as well as universities. The group has been imparting training to the university students in pursuing their research degrees. The group is in forefront in publishing good number of research papers in the fields of palaeo, rock and environmental magnetism.

  • Petrological, Geochemical and Isotopic Studies

The petrological laboratory of KSKGRL is engaged in the doing the detail petrogarphy of all types of rocks including the studies of magnetic minerals which is help in paleomagnetic studies. The petrological laboratory has section cutting machine and petrological microscope. At present petrological laboratory include the advanced instruments like: (a) BUEHLER Meta-serv 3000 family offers a combination of performance, economy and reliability for most Micro structural analysis applications. It is designed for manual grinding and polishing, as well as for semiautomatic operation combined with a Vector LC power head. (b) BUEHLER Petro-thin Re-sectioning & grinding in a single system thin sectioning system is a precise, easy-to-use instrument for thin sectioning a wide variety of geological specimens, such as rocks and minerals (c) Olympus BX 51 TRINOCULAR POLARIZING Microscope with petrogaphic attachment for doing petrography and identification of mineral assemblage can magnifying up to 40X. On the basis of JNOPTIK Germany, High quality 1/2” 3.15 mega pixel color CMOS camera can capture the image live as well as still photograph of minerals.

(C) Magnetic Observatory:

  • Monitoring of DFM and DIM observations are being carried out and data sent to Head-Quarters.

  • Instruments Maintenance: All the Magnetic Observatory and UAS experiments [DFM 1 & 2, DIM, PPM, Canadian Advanced Digital Ionosonde (CADI), Very Low Frequency (VLF) receiver, Leica 1200 GPS] at KSKGRL is being maintained for continuous operation and data is been collected continuously.

Dr. Gautam Gupta (Head)
Dr. Rajesh Singh (Administrative - In - Charge), Dr. P. T. Patil ( Stand by Administrative - In - Charge)
Dr. K.S.Krishnan Geomagnetic Research Laboratory,
Indian Institute of Geomagnetism, 
Leelpur Road, Near Chmanganj (Kanihar)
Post Hatapur Hanaumanganj, Prayagraj,
U.P.  211 506
Tel Nos. 0532-2567134/2567030
Email id: iig[dot]kskgrl[at]iigm[dot]res[dot]in